This Surah (Al-Ma’oon) is known as Surah Ma’oon due to the final ayah mentioning ‘Ma’oon’
The previous Surah mentioned Allaah’s blessings upon the Quraysh, such as Allaah feeding them against their hunger. However, this Surah (Al-Ma’oon) mentions the one who does not encourage upon feeding the one who is in need of food.
Likewise, Surah Quraysh mentions the command to worship Allaah, the Lord of the Kabah (and all that exists) and this surah mentions the one who is neglectful regarding the worship of Allaah.
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ
أَرَءَيۡتَ ٱلَّذِى يُكَذِّبُ بِٱلدِّينِ (١)
Have you seen him who denies the Recompense? (1)
The addressing here is to the Prophet Sallallaahu Alayhi Wa Sallam, however, the Ummah follows in this.
فَذَٲلِكَ ٱلَّذِى يَدُعُّ ٱلۡيَتِيمَ (٢)
That is he who repulses the orphan (harshly), (2)
The orphan is the one whose father passed away whilst he was a child, up until he reaches puberty.
وَلَا يَحُضُّ عَلَىٰ طَعَامِ ٱلۡمِسۡكِينِ (٣)
And urges not on the feeding of AlMiskîn (the poor), (3)
فَوَيۡلٌ۬ لِّلۡمُصَلِّينَ (٤)
So woe unto those performers of Salât (prayers) (hypocrites), (4)
is a threat of a severe punishment. This word is also a valley in the hell-fire.
ٱلَّذِينَ هُمۡ عَن صَلَاتِہِمۡ سَاهُونَ (٥)
Those who delay their Salât (prayer from their stated fixed times), (5)
ٱلَّذِينَ هُمۡ يُرَآءُونَ (٦)
Those who do good deeds only to be seen (of men), (6)
وَيَمۡنَعُونَ ٱلۡمَاعُونَ (٧)
And prevent Al-Mâ’ûn (small kindnesses like salt, sugar, water). (7)
This includes anything that may help a person, such as a pan, a jug, or anything that is commonly asked for
Shaykh Fawzaan mentioned that if a person doesn’t lend anything, then this is a blameworthy characteristic. Within this Surah we see an encouragement to lend to the one who is trustworthy. If a person takes a thing, and then rejects having taken it, then this person is a thief.
It was narrated by Aa’isha (May Allaah be pleased with her) that there was a woman who used to borrow goods from people, then she used to reject that; so the Prophet Sallallaahu Alayhi Wa Sallam commanded with the chopping of her hand (Which is the ruling to be carried out by the Muslim Ruler, in the Muslim lands, for the thief).
Most Surahs take their name due to what a Surah begins with; however, as we saw with the previous Surah, this is not always the case. A Surah can also take its name due to the story within it, such as Surah Al-Baqara and Surah Aale-Imraan; and due to the rulings connected to it, such as Surah An-Nisa. Some Surahs also have multiple names, due to many matters discussed within the Surahs. Some Surahs were named by the Prophet Sallallaahu Alayhi Wa Sallam, such as Surah Al-Fatiha, Falaq and Naas. As for other Surahs, the Scholars have mentioned that the Sahaba had named them.
This Surah (Al-Kawthar) was revealed in response to some of the Mushrikeen who came to the Prophet Sallallaahu Alayhi Wa Sallam and said he is one who is cut off (i.e. from prosperity, and any off-spring). This Surah applies to anyone who shows enmity to the Prophet Sallallaahu Alayhi Wa Sallam.
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ
إِنَّآ أَعۡطَيۡنَـٰكَ ٱلۡكَوۡثَرَ (١)
Verily, We have granted you Al-Kauthar (a river in Paradise); (1)
Here, Allaah is speaking to the Prophet Sallallaahu Alayhi Wa Sallam.
فَصَلِّ لِرَبِّكَ وَٱنۡحَرۡ (٢)
Therefore turn in prayer to your Lord and sacrifice (to Him only) (2)
إِنَّ شَانِئَكَ هُوَ ٱلۡأَبۡتَرُ (٣)
For he who hates you (O Muhammad (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wa Sallam)), he will be cut off from every posterity (good thing in this world and in the Hereafter). (3)
We see within this Surah, the establishment of the river given to the Prophet Sallallaahu Alayhi Wa Sallam, how he will be aided by Allaah, and how Allaah will ward those enemies away from him.
This Surah is connected to the previous Surah,(Al-Ma’oon) as the previous Surah mentions those who are neglectful of the prayer and this Surah commands with turning in prayer to our Lord.
Likewise, the previous surah shows the characteristics of the stingy one, and within this Surah we see the command of slaughtering, and giving to those who are in need.