Tafsir Surat Al Fatihah

أعوذ بالله من الشيطان الرجيم

I seek refuge with Allaah from the Accursed Shaytaan (Satan).

To seek refuge means to seek protection, resorting back to Allaah subhaanahu Wa Ta’aalah.

Shaytaan is referring to Iblees.

“Accursed” means that he is distanced and removed from every Mercy of Allaah.

As a whole, it is a statement made to seek refuge from him coming to us during our recitation and trying to mislead us. It can be made for the recitation and other than the recitation, for example, upon an evil thought or in the state of anger.

The Prophet Sallallaahu Alayhi Wa Sallam would say
“I seek refuge in Allaah, The All Hearing and All Knowing, from the Accursed shaytaan and from his Hamz (whispers), from being possessed and from his arrogance, from his ….”

The isti’aathah is not waajib, rather it is sunnah and highly recommended.

 

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

In the Name of Allah, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful.

-Sura Al-Fatihah, Ayah 1

To begin remembering the Name of Allaah before everything else.

Allaah means “The One who possesses Uloohiyyah (the right to Worship, Servitude, Submission of slaves).

The origin is “Ilah” but the Hamza (in Arabic language) has been dropped due to the excessive use of the word.

Ar Rahmaan ( is a Name from the Names of Allaah, derived from Mercy. It indicates the plentiful nature of Mercy. It’s intent is a general type of Mercy, encompassing all of the Creation. Through creating, providing, sustaining all of the creation.

Ar Rahim is also derived from Mercy. It indicates the plentiful nature of Mercy again. However, this Mercy is specific to the Believers (in the Hereafter).

It is legislated to utter the Basmallah (saying Bismillaahir Rahmaanir Rahim) when reciting every surah from the Qur’an except Surat At Tawbah.

It is also legislated to say in many different circumstances, where someone is seeking the aid of Allaah in an action.

Ibn Uthaymin highlighted the importance of being mindful of saying this statement. If a person wants the reward for doing everyday actions, he must bring to mind the intention to do this act in order to aid him in the worship of Allaah. If he does, so he will be rewarded for it. As for the one who isn’t mindful, and these actions just become habits for him, then he may not acquire the reward. That is why it is said:

“The habitual actions of the mindful people are worship for them. The worship of the heedless people are habitual actions.”

 

الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ

All the praises and thanks be to Allah, the Lord of the ‘Alamin (mankind, jinns and all that exists).

-Sura Al-Fatihah, Ayah 2

From the names of this surah: “Opening of the Book”, “Mother of the Book”, “Mother of the Qur’an”, “The Seven oft-recited verses”, “The Magnificent Qur’an”, “The Surah of Praise”, “The Prayer”, “The Cure”, “The Ruqya”, “The Protection”.

Hamd – To extol and praise Allaah with Attributes of Perfection, along with Love for Him and magnifying Him.

Rabbul– The One who is worshipped, the Owner, the One who does what He wills in the Creation, the One who nurtures.

Aalameen – All that exists other than Allaah.

 

الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

The Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful.

-Sura Al-Fatihah, Ayah 3

Ar Rahmaan Ar Rahim – Discussed earlier

 

مَالِكِ يَوْمِ الدِّينِ

The Only Owner (and the Only Ruling Judge) of the Day of Recompense (i.e. the Day of Resurrection)

-Sura Al-Fatihah, Ayah 4

The Owner and One who carries out what He wills on that day. The Day of Reckoning, when every single person will be rewarded for their actions, if their actions were good then they will be rewarded with good and vice versa for evil actions.

 

إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ

You (Alone) we worship, and you (Alone) we ask for help (for each and everything).

-Sura Al-Fatihah, Ayah 5

We single You out with worship and seeking Aid. We do not worship anyone besides you nor do we rely upon anyone besides you.
This is a covenenat and an agreement between the slave and his Lord.

 

اهْدِنَا الصِّرَاطَ الْمُسْتَقِيمَ

Guide us to the Straight Way

-Sura Al-Fatihah, Ayah 6

Point us towards the path that has no crookedness. Bless us upon that path and give us success through knowledge of this path and action upon that knowledge. Knowledge and action that causes a person to arrive to Allaah and His Jannah.

 

صِرَاطَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ غَيْرِ الْمَغْضُوبِ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا الضَّالِّينَ

The Way of those on whom You have bestowed Your Grace, not (the way) of those who earned Your Anger, nor of those who went astray.

-Sura Al-Fatihah, Ayah 7

The path of those who You favoured with guidance and success to Iman and remaining steadfast upon it.

Those who earned Your Anger = those who knew the truth and turned away from it, like the Jews and their likes.

Those who went astray = those who went astray from the truth, like the Christians and their likes who do not worship Allaah with knowledge.

 

It is recommended to say “Aameen” after the surah, both in the surah and outside of it. Aameen means “Oh Allaah answer my dua”.

 

Abdullah ibn Mas’ood mentioned that the greatest surah in the Qur’an is Surat Al Fatihah.

Ibnul Qayyim mentioned that the knowledge of all the previous divine, revealed books all go back to the Qur’an and all of the Qur’an goes back to Surat Al Fatihah. And all of Surah Al Fatihah goes back to the ayah:

إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ

You (Alone) we worship, and you (Alone) we ask for help (for each and everything).

From the virtue of this surah is that is a pillar from the pillars of the salah. For the Imam and the one praying by himself. The prayer is not accepted without it. Many of the scholars hold it to be waajib for the one being led likewise. Abu Hurayrah narrates that the Prophet Sallallaahu Alayhi Wa Sallam said:

“Whoever prays a prayer without reciting The Mother of the Quran (Surah Al Fatihah) then it is deficient.” He said this 3 times, then said “It is not complete.”

When you recite this surah, you are coming to Allaah with an agreement, to direct all of your worship directly to Him.

Worship = Everything that Allaah loves from actions and statements, open and hidden.

This surah comprises of the 3 categories of Tawheed

Ruboobiyyah in the ayah:

الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ

All the praises and thanks be to Allah, the Lord of the ‘Alamin (mankind, jinns and all that exists).

Uloohiyyah in the ayah:

إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ

You (Alone) we worship, and you (Alone) we ask for help (for each and everything).

Asmaa Was Sifaat:

الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

The Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful.

And: مَالِكِ يَوْمِ الدِّينِ

The Only Owner (and the Only Ruling Judge) of the Day of Recompense (i.e. the Day of Resurrection).